Drawing of opium pipe

Asian American Comparative Collection:
The Kooskia Internment Camp Project:
Justice Department and U.S. Army Internment Camps and Detention Stations in the U.S. during World War II


Priscilla Wegars, Ph.D., Volunteer Curator
Laboratory of Anthropology
University of Idaho
P. O. Box 441111
Moscow, Idaho 83844-1111 USA
208-885-7075
pwegars@uidaho.edu

Justice Department and U.S. Army Internment Camps and Detention Stations in the U.S. during World War II

Name1, Location

Numbers; Composition

Date Open/Closed

References,2 Comments,

Agnew State Hospital, CA

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 263

Akron, OH

Unknown; German aliens (and others?); 3M

Unknown

NARA RG 85/ Entry 271

Algiers, LA

150; German and Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 252; NARA RG 85/ Entry 271

Angel Island, San Francisco Bay, CA (see Fort McDowell)

     

Asheville, NC

Unknown; Japanese diplomatic personnel and families; Grove Park Inn

Unknown

Weglyn 177

Assembly Inn (see Montreat, NC)

     

Bedford, PA

Unknown, unknown

Unknown

NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Bismarck, ND (see Fort Lincoln)

     

Boston, MA (see East Boston)

     

Brighton, MA

Unknown; unknown; Marine Hospital

Unknown

Kashima 264

Camp Blanding, FL

200; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256-257, 261

Camp Kalaheo, Kauai, HI

Japanese

Unknown

Saiki viii

Camp Chaffee, AZ

Unknown; German aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257

Camp Clark, MO

Unknown; Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257

Camp Crossville, TN

Unknown; German and Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257, 261

Camp Forrest, TN

Unknown; Japanese, German, Italian, and other aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257

Camp Livingston, Alexandria, LA

571; Japanese aliens

Unknown

Weglyn 177; a.k.a. Livingston, Camp Livingston

Camp McCoy, near Sparta, WI

860; Japanese, German, Italian, and other aliens, also Japanese POWs

Unknown

Kashima 256-257, 261-262; Weglyn 176-177

Camp Shelby, MS

1,200; Japanese and others

Unknown

Kashima 256, 259

Camp Upton, NY

1,000; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 256

Cascade Inn (see Hot Springs, VA)

     

Chicago, IL

158; Japanese, German, and other aliens in a private residence, House of the Good Shepherd

Unknown

Clark 25; Kashima 252, 264; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Chicago, IL(2)

Unknown; unknown; U.S. Marine Hospital

Unknown

Kashima 263

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad, East Portal, MT

Unknown; probably Italian

Unknown

Brown

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul Railroad, Missoula, MT

Unknown; unknown; Gang. No. 109

Unknown

Kashima 264

Cincinnati, OH

75; German, Italian, and other aliens in parcel post building

Unknown

Kashima 252

Clarinda, IA

Unknown; Japanese aliens, also Japanese POWs

Unknown

Kashima 261-262

Cleveland, OH(1)

45; German and Italian aliens in former police precinct

Unknown

Kashima 252

Cleveland, OH(2)

Unknown; unknown; House of the Good Shepherd

Unknown

Kashima 264

Convent of the Good Shepherd [see Los Angeles, CA(1); Chicago, IL(1), East Boston, MA; Cleveland, OH(2); Milwaukee, WI]

 

Unknown

NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Crystal City, TX

3,326; Japanese aliens and Japanese Americans (2,200), German Americans (1,000), Italian Americans (a few), Puerto Ricans, Alaskans, Hawaiians, Latin Americans, West Indians, all as families

11/1942-11/1947 or 12/1947 or 2/1948

"Family camp"; Clark 13, 19; Mangione 334; Niiya 125; "Japanese conjugal camp," Christgau 39

Detroit, MI

Unknown; German and Japanese aliens

Unknown

Kashima 252; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Doctor's Hospital, Washington, DC

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 264

East Boston, MA

Unknown; German, Japanese, and other aliens; House of the Good Shepherd

Unknown

Kashima 252, 264; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Ellis Island, NY

Unknown; German (mostly), Italian, Japanese, and other aliens

Unknown

Clark 25; Kashima 252; NARA RG 85, Entry 271; Weglyn 176

Florence, AZ

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

1/1942-Unknown

Former military post, Clark 11

Fort Bliss, TX

1,350; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256, 259

Fort Bragg, NC

140; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 256

Fort De[s] Moines, IA

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 264

Fort Devens, MA

1,000; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 256

Fort Howard, MD

200; Japanese and German aliens, in old army barracks

Unknown

Kashima 253

Fort Leonard Wood, MO

Unknown; Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257

Fort Lewis, near Tacoma, WA

315; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256-257, 259

Fort Lincoln, Bismarck, ND

Unknown; Japanese aliens (1,121 maximum); German aliens

1942-1/1946

Japanese only to 12/1942, German only to 1945, then both; Clark 17; Mangione 324; Weglyn 177

Fort Livingston, LA (see Camp Livingston)

     

Fort MacArthur, Long Beach, CA

500; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256, 259

Fort McClellan, Calhoun, AL

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 264

Fort McDowell, San Francisco, CA

500; Japanese, German and Italian aliens; also Japanese POWs

Unknown

Saiki 75; Kashima 257, 262; Weglyn 176

Fort McPherson, GA

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 264

Fort Meade, MD

1,680; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens, also Japanese POWs

Unknown

Kashima 256-257, 262; Weglyn 177

Fort Missoula, MT

Over 2,000; Japanese aliens (1,000+), Italian aliens (1,300), German aliens (perhaps 127 maximum)

4/1941-7/1944

Van Valkenberg 1, 3, 13, 32, 48-49, 82, 85, 110

Fort Oglethorpe, GA

948; German, Italian, and other aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256

Fort Richardson, AK

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

Unknown

Weglyn 177

Fort Sam Houston, TX

1,000; Japanese, German, Italian, and other aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256, 259; Van Valkenberg 109

Fort Screven, Chatham, GA

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 264

Fort Sill, near Lawton, OK

700; Japanese and German aliens

Unknown

Kashima 256, 258; Van Valkenberg 102; Weglyn 177

Fort Stanton, NM

Unknown; German (primarily) and Japanese (a few) aliens

1942-1945 or 1946

Sometimes confused with Old Raton Ranch Camp; Clark 17, 19; "segregation camp for the most rabid Nazis," Christgau 39

Gloucester City, NJ

Unknown; Japanese, German, Italian, Hungarian, and other aliens, including some women for a short time

Unknown

Kashima 252; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Great Northern Railroad, Blacktail, MT

Unknown; probably Italian; Gang No. 3

Unknown

Brown

Great Northern Railroad, Flathead, MT

Unknown; unknown; Gang No. 3

Unknown

Kashima 264

Great Northern Railroad, Granite, MT

Unknown; unknown; Crew No. 6

Unknown

Kashima 264

Great Northern Railroad, Lewis and Clark, MT

Unknown; unknown; Crew No. 5

Unknown

Kashima 264

Great Northern Railroad, Mineral, MT

Unknown; unknown; Gang No. 2

Unknown

Kashima 264

Great Northern Railroad, Powell, MT

Unknown; unknown; Gang No. 5

Unknown

Kashima 264

Greenbrier (see White Sulphur Springs, WV)




Griffith Park, Los Angeles, CA

Unknown; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens

3/1942-Unknown

Kashima 257, 259

Grove Park Inn (see Asheville, NC)

     

Haiku Internment Camp, Maui, HI

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

Unknown

Niiya 304; Saiki viii

Hartford, CT

50; unknown; in a community center

Unknown

Kashima 253

Hershey, PA

Unknown; unknown; Hershey Hotel

Unknown

Harrison; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Homestead, Hot Springs, VA

Unknown; Japanese diplomatic personnel and families

Unknown

Weglyn 177

Honouliuli, Ewa, Oahu, HI

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

Unknown

Niiya 304; Saiki viii, Weglyn 177

Hot Springs, VA

Unknown; Japanese diplomatic personnel and families; Cascade Inn and/or The Homestead

Unknown

Kashima 264; Weglyn 177

House of the Good Shepherd [see Los Angeles, CA(1); Chicago, IL(1), East Boston, MA; Cleveland, OH(2); Milwaukee, WI]

     

Houston, TX

26; unknown; in former police station

Unknown

Kashima 253

Ingleside Hotel (see Staunton, VA)

     

Kalaheo (see Camp Kalaheo, HI)

     

Kansas City, MO

20; German and Italian aliens; in municipal building

Unknown

Kashima 253

Kenedy, TX

2,700; mostly Japanese and German alien men, some Italians; 19 miscellaneous nationalities represented, particularly Latin Americans, also Japanese POWs

3/1942-9/1944

Clark 17; Christgau 39; Kashima 262; Mangione 327

Kooskia, ID

267; all Japanese alien men except for 2 internee doctors; 1 Italian and 1 German

5/1943-5/1945

Wegars 2

Lexington, Ky

Unknown; Japanese (2), German, and Italian aliens

Unknown

NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Lordsburg, NM

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

Unknown

Kashima 257; Weglyn 176

Los Angeles, CA(1)

Unknown; unknown; Convent/House of the Good Shepherd

Unknown

Kashima 264; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Los Angeles, CA(2) (see Griffith Park)

     

Madigan Hospital, WA

Unknown; unknown; Japanese POWs

 

Kashima 262

Massachusetts State Hospital (see North Grafton, MA)

     

McAlester, OK

Unknown; Italian and other aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257

Miami, FL

80; German and Italian aliens in part of sports stadium

Unknown

Kashima 252-253

Milwaukee, WI

Unknown; unknown; House of the Good Shepherd

Unknown

Kashima 264

Montreat, NC

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?); Assembly Inn

Unknown

Weglyn 177

Nanticoke, PA

100; unknown; in state armory

Unknown

Kashima 253

New Orleans, LA

Unknown; unknown; parish prison

Unknown

Kashima 263

Niagara Falls, NY

40; German, in former immigration station

Unknown

Kashima 253; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

North Grafton, MA

Unknown; unknown; Massachusetts State Hospital

Unknown

Kashima 264

Northern Pacific Extra Gang No. 2, St. Regis, MT

Unknown; probably Italian

Unknown

Brown

Northern Pacific Railroad, Fargo, ND

Unknown; German and other aliens; Gang No. 5

Unknown

Northern Pacific Railroad; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Northern Pacific Gang No. 5, Winston, MT

Unknown; probably Italian

Unknown

Brown

Old Raton Ranch Camp, NM3

Unknown; Japanese aliens and Japanese Americans

1/1942-9/1942

Clark 17-18

Phoenix, AZ

Unknown; unknown; city jail

Unknown

Kashima 263

Pittsburgh, PA

400; unknown; in state armory

Unknown

Kashima 253

Portland, OR

60; Japanese, German, and Italian aliens in county jail wing

Unknown

Kashima 253

Roswell, NM

Unknown; German aliens

9/20/1942-Unknown

Kashima 257, 259

Salt Lake City, UT

100; Japanese, German, Italian, and other aliens in county jail wing

Unknown

Kashima 253; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Sand Island, Honolulu Harbor, Oahu, HI

Unknown; mostly Japanese alien and Japanese American men, some Germans and Italians, and "women of various nationalities"

12/1941-31943

Army-run; Niiya 304; saiki viii, 30; Weglyn 177

San Francisco, CA

Unknown; unknown; Marine Hospital

Unknown

Kashima 263

San Pedro, CA

Unknown; unknown

Unknown

Kashima 263

Santa Fe, NM

2,100 - 4,555; mostly or exclusively Japanese alien men

3/1942-9/1942; 2/1943-5/1946

Clark 14; Niiya 176; 305-306

Seabrook Farms, Seabrook, NJ

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

Unknown

Postwar "relaxed internment" for aliens; Clark 19, 25

Seagoville, Dallas, TX

About 700; mostly female aliens and couples; Japanese and German; some Latin Americans; "only" women

4/1942-6/1945

Former women's prison; Clark 13, Mangione 334, 336-337; Niiya 176

Seattle, WA

Unknown; Japanese, German, Italian, and other aliens

Unknown

Kashima 252

Sharp Park, San Francisco vicinity, CA

450; German, Italian, Japanese, and other aliens in former state relief camp

Unknown

Clark 9; Kashima 253; NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Spokane, WA

Unknown; German (mostly) and Italian aliens

Unknown

NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Staunton, VA

Unknown; unknown; Ingleside Hotel

Unknown

Kashima 264

St. Louis, MO

30; unknown; in county jail wing

Unknown

Kashima 253

St. Paul, MN

30; unknown; in county jail

Unknown

Kashima 253

Stringtown, OK

Unknown; Japanese, German, and other aliens

Unknown

Kashima 257, 259; Weglyn 177

Syracuse, NY

25; unknown; in former fire station

Unknown

Kashima 253

Taunton, MA

Unknown; unknown; Massachusetts State Hospital

Unknown

Kashima 264

3M, Akron, OH

Unknown; German aliens (and others?)

Unknown

NARA RG 85, Entry 271

Tullahoma, TN

Unknown; Japanese aliens (and others?)

Unknown

Weglyn 177

Tuna Canyon, Tujunga, CA

200; Japanese, German, Italian, and perhaps other aliens in former CCC camp

Unknown

Kashima 253; NARA RG 85, Entry 271; Weglyn 176

U.S. Marine Hospital [see Chicago, IL(2)]

     

Washington, DC

Unknown; German and Italian aliens; St. Elizabeth's Hospital

Unknown

NARA RG 85, Entry 271

White Sulphur Springs, WV

Unknown; Japanese diplomatic personnel and families; The Greenbrier

Unknown

Weglyn 177

1Names of the INS camps vary somewhat depending on what source is consulted; no one reference lists them all.

2References: Brown is FVB to SG, July 29, 1943, together with FVB to FFT, July 29, 1943; E291, 1000/F, RG85, NARA I; Clark is Paul Frederick Clark, "Those Other Camps: An Oral History Analysis of Japanese Alien Enemy Internment during World War II" (master's thesis, California State University, Fullerton, 1980); Christgau is John Christgau, "Enemies:" World War II Alien Internment (Ames: Iowa State University, 1985); Harrison is EGH, Administrative Letter No. 150 to the INS, E291, 1000/K(4), September 20, 1943; RG85, NARA I.; Kashima is Tetsuden Kashima, Judgment without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II (Seattle: University of Washington, 2003); Mangione is Jerre Mangione, An Ethnic at Large: A Memoir of America in the Thirties and Forties (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1978); NARA is Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Civilian Alien Enemies In Custody - February 29, 1944, June 30, 1944, and December 31, 1944; all E271, Box 2, RG85, NARA I; Niiya is Brian Niiya, ed., Japanese American History: An A-to-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present (New York: Facts on File, 1993); Saiki is Patsy Sumie Saiki, Ganbare! An Example of Japanese Spirit (Honolulu: Kisaku, 1982); Wegars is Priscilla Wegars, Golden State Meets Gem State: Californians at Idaho's Kooskia Internment Camp, 1943-1945 (Moscow, ID: Kooskia Internment Camp Project, 2002), which erroneously states that both doctors were German; Weglyn is Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps (New York: William Morrow, 1976).

3Old Raton Ranch Camp, New Mexico, is sometimes confused with nearby Fort Stanton, and one government document refers to it as "Old Raton Ranch Camp, Fort Stanton, NM," "[Inventory of] Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service," "Part III, "Records of Enemy Alien Internment Facilities," October 11, 1989, no. 306, p. 71, NARA I. However, Clark, "Those Other Camps," 69, clearly states that "Old Raton Ranch Camp [was] near [emphasis added] Fort Stanton."

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January 2014/kooskia.htm/pwegars@uidaho.edu